Mushrooms & Your Health

The Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms

By: Jennifer Molnar (M.Sc. Human Health and Nutritional Sciences)

As a scientist, nature freak and self-proclaimed foodie, I find it difficult to imagine a world without mushrooms. Call me a nerd, sure, but fungi have had an enormous impact on humankind in ways we just don’t appreciate in our day-to-day lives. I am not referring to the necessity of fungi in just about every ecosystem on Earth, nor to their contribution to our food supply in the form of baked goods, fermented foods and certain alcoholic beverages. What could be more important to human civilization than beer, you ask? Simply put, fungi have played an uncontested role in the maintenance of human health and wellness for thousands of years. In fact, they were the original wonder drug. The Chinese called them ‘the elixir of life,’ (1) and a blue mould was the source of the antibiotic that revolutionized medicine (2). Even Ötzi, the 5300-year-old Iceman found frozen in the Alps, carried a collection of therapeutic fungi in his pack (3). Medicinal mushrooms are clearly not new, but recent research into their bioactive compounds has drawn attention to the impact of mushrooms on immune function (4). With cancer being one of the leading causes of death in North America, this crucial finding has made mushrooms—and the anti-cancer drugs derived from them—seem fresh again. Could medicinal mushrooms prove to be a miracle drug once more? You’ll have to keep reading to find out.

An Introduction to Mushrooms
Before I convert you into a fellow fungi fanatic, it is important to understand the biology of these interesting yet misunderstood organisms. The kingdom Fungi are an extraordinarily diverse group that range from microscopic unicellular yeasts to multicellular macrofungi. The two main groups, or phyla, of fungi are the Basidiomycota and the Ascomycota (5). The former category encompasses some of the more well-known fungi like toadstools, bracket fungi and puffballs, while the latter includes truffles, morels, yeasts and moulds. When we think of a mushroom, the classic umbrella-shaped fungus automatically comes to mind. But not all fungi have mushrooms, and not all mushrooms look like the ones we’re familiar with. The word ‘mushroom’ is a loosely-used term that actually refers to the macroscopic fruiting body of a fungus (6). According to Brittany Stager, Marketing Manager at Mushrooms Canada, “the fruiting body is the structure that bears the spores, or reproductive material.” If you imagine the anatomy of a plant, the fruiting body would be roughly equivalent to the plant’s fruit or flower, while the spores would be akin to the seeds. Some experts take the definition further and consider only fruiting bodies large enough to be picked by hand to be true mushrooms. Fruiting bodies are extremely diverse in form; some look like amorphous globs of jelly, while others are reminiscent of coral, birds’ eggs or starfish.

When we refer to mushrooms in cuisine, we are talking about the fruiting body of an edible fungus that can be sliced, diced, simmered or eaten whole. “Among the most popular mushrooms used in cooking are white, portabella, shiitake and oyster mushrooms,” explains Stager. But the ‘lower’ fungi are still important to the food industry even though they do not produce mushrooms. Moulds and yeasts are used as ingredients or processing aids to make a variety of foodstuffs like blue cheese, soft drinks and leavened baked goods (7).
The vast majority of mushrooms, whether edible or not, contain a host of bioactive compounds (6). The fruiting body houses antioxidants like the amino acid ergothioneine (8), the fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (9) and various phenolic compounds (10). But the most heavily researched active constituents found in mushrooms are the polysaccharides, a group of carbohydrate compounds that include proteoglycans (1). But more on those later.

Mushrooms: The Original Miracle Drug
Like so many other foods known to behave like drugs in the body, the science has only recently begun to reveal what ancient cultures have known about mushrooms for millennia (1, 6). Mushrooms have been used in traditional Eastern medicines to treat conditions ranging from heart disease, stomach upset and diabetes to infections, liver problems and cancer (1, 4, 6). Although more than 270 species of mushrooms are thought to have drug-like properties (4), the main medicinal species used historically are the reiishi (Gandoderma lucidum), shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) (6).

We have since found ways to transform the pharmacological elements of mushrooms into modern drugs thanks to advancements in technology. Many of today’s most important pharmaceuticals—immunosuppressors, statins, antibiotics and more—were originally derived from fungi (11). In fact, one of the most significant contributions to medicine was all thanks to some stubborn mould. In 1928, scientist Alexander Fleming left a dish of bacteria he had been working with unattended while on holiday. When he returned after a few weeks, he was irked to find pesky mould growing on his specimens. But like any good scientist, Fleming was intrigued by the odd bacteria-free halo surrounding the blue mould. What was it was that made the pathogenic organisms unable to grow there? The mould turned out to be the fungus Penicillium, and the antibiotic penicillin was officially born (2). Penicillin proved to be a saving grace for humankind as the years went on, helping us treat fatal bacterial infections that were previously impossible to cure (11). The following decades brought increased lifespan and improved quality of life for the majority, shifting the need for a cure away from acute infections and toward chronic disease. So while the problem today is different, the story remains the same: cancer is now a major cause of death for which we have no cure. Could fungi again be our key to survival? A surprisingly consistent body of evidence says yes.

The earliest study showcasing the anti-cancer powers of mushrooms was published several decades ago. Extracts of the common porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis) inhibited tumour progression in mice implanted with human cancer cells (12). Promising to be sure, but could the same benefits be achieved in humans? To put these findings into a real-life context, researchers studied the cancer death rates of more than 100 000 Japanese mushroom farmers over a span of 15 years. The study was based on the assumption that the farmers would eat at least some of the edible enokitake (Flammuline velutipes) they farmed more than those who did not grow mushrooms. The research proved fruitful: the rates of death from cancer were roughly 165% higher in people who did not regularly consume mushrooms (13, 14). But the observational nature of this investigation still left questions unanswered. Do mushrooms cure cancer or simply prevent it? How much do you have to eat to obtain the benefits?

Mushroom Immunoceuticals and Cancer
Many of the active substances found in mushrooms—particulary proteoglycans—act as immunomodulators. An immunomodulator is a substance that influences the functioning of the immune system when introduced into the body (15). Mushroom compounds that are immunologically active when eaten have been dubbed ‘immunoceuticals,’ a subcategory of nutraceuticals (15, 16, 17). Dozens of mushroom species contain immunoceuticals, yet only six of these have been tested in humans (15, 16).

Why is immunomodulation important? For one, the immune system plays a critical role in our ability to fight diseases such as cancer. A healthy immune system is made up of different types of white blood cells that work together to defend the body (18). The main job of the immune system is to recognize these foreign or harmful substances and eliminate them (18). Sounds simple enough, but cancer cells have found a way around our natural defences. Even though the immune system is supposed to recognize the cells as invasive, cancer cells have mechanisms that make them especially good at evading this response (15). This is why cancer is so difficult to cure, even with potent treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is somewhat effective at removing tumours, but chemo and radiation are usually employed to make sure any remaining cells are destroyed. And while conventional therapies may seem like a good option, they can severely weaken a patient’s immune system and cause debilitating side effects (4).

This is where mushrooms shine: the six immunoceuticals extracted from certain fungi have shown huge potential as valuable cancer therapies. Interestingly, the following compounds that have displayed the most promising anti-cancer effects are derived from seemingly ordinary mushrooms:
• Lentinan – an extract of the popular and delicious shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes);
• Schizophyllan – derived from the world’s most common and widespread mushroom, the Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune);
• AHCC (Active Hexose Correlated Compound) – a proprietary blend of extracts from several mushrooms, namely shiitake;
• Maitake D-Fraction – a preparation from another widely-used Japanese mushroom, the maitake (Grifola frondosa);
•  PSK (Polysaccharide-K, also known as krestin) – an extract from the multi-hued Turkey Tail mushroom (Trametes versicolor);
•  PSP (Polysaccharide-peptide) – also derived from the Turkey Tail (4).

Of these six cancer-thwarting substances, PSK and PSP have undergone the most testing in humans. PSK and PSP are large molecules called proteoglycans that are made up of small proteins and repeating sugar units. Proteoglycans have a branched centipede-like shape, with the long protein backbone as the body and the shorter sugar chains as the legs. This pronged configuration allows the compounds to interact with human cells in a complex way. This is an especially important attribute when it comes to carrying and transmitting information from one cell to another (6). In this way, PSK sends a message to stimulate a sluggish immune system, strengthening the body’s defences against cancerous cells (4).

There is now more than fifty years’ worth of clinical evidence supporting PSK’s activity against esophageal, stomach, colorectal, nasopharyngeal and lung cancers in humans (4, 15). PSP has shown similar hopeful results in human studies, mostly against cancers of the stomach, esophagus and lung (15). And unlike toxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, PSK and PSP have shown virtually no negative side effects in patients (1, 15). In most studies the mushroom-derived substances were used in conjunction with conventional therapies to improve patients’ overall quality of life (1, 4, 15). The most remarkable finding of all? The ability of both PSK and PSP to increase survival rates in patients with certain types of cancer (1, 15). Now that’s impressive, even for the already remarkable fungi.

Despite the solid body of evidence to date, more research is needed to determine how exactly mushroom proteoglycans behave in the body, how they are metabolized and what dose, frequency and route of administration is most effective (4). It is also important that any interactions between mushroom compounds and chemotherapy are identified and understood, since herbal remedies can influence how the body processes the chemicals (4). Still, certain mushroom compounds have already been approved as prescription drugs in Japan, China and Korea (1). The next step toward getting these promising agents into routine use in North America is the completion of more well-designed clinical trials. Until then, we can only hope mushrooms will live up to their reputation as ‘the elixir of life’ and help improve the health of humankind for centuries to come.

How to Incorporate Mushrooms Into Your Diet
Mushrooms are clearly beneficial as both foods and drugs. The question is, how can we benefit from their unique disease-fighting and health-promoting properties?

One option is mushroom supplements. While mushroom tonics, powders and extracts have been popular in Asian countries for a while now (4), Canada is catching up: there are already a handful of licensed natural health products containing reiishi and shiitake extracts for immune system support (18).

An even better (and more delicious) option is to simply eat more mushrooms. Mushrooms contain a lot of things that are good for us. “A 100-gram serving of fresh white mushrooms—about 4 or 5 medium-sized mushrooms—has only 25 calories, no cholesterol and is virtually fat-free,” says Stager. To add to their health-conscious nutrient profile, mushrooms that have been exposed to UV light (most commercial type have) are a good source of vitamin D, an essential nutrient that is typically obtained only from animal-based products like meat, poultry and seafood (20). “Just one serving of shiitakes can provide up to 48% of your daily requirement for vitamin D,” Stager explains. Better yet, mushrooms contain dietary fibre, are low in sodium and are a good source of riboflavin, copper, selenium, niacin and panthothenic acid.

To find fresh, tasty mushrooms, look no further than your neighbourhood grocery store or farmer’s market for locally grown finds. According to Stager, many of the most popular types are produced right here in Canada.  “There are seven varieties of fresh mushrooms grown in Canada,” she says. “White, crimini, portobella, shiitake, oyster, king oyster and enoki are all grown and harvested from coast to coast every day of the year.” Even thick slices of the melon-sized giant puffball have been known to appear at Ontario farmer’s markets from time to time.

To up your mushroom intake, Stager recommends adding half a cup of white button mushrooms to your omelette instead of cheddar, or tossing diced grilled portabella with pasta in lieu of sausage. These swaps will cut your sodium intake by a significant amount and provide you with extra potassium.  Not bad for a fungus.
Any way you slice it, the world as we know it simply wouldn’t exist without fungi.  Through reading this and the other wonderful articles in this volume, I hope you have gained an appreciation for—or at the very least, an understanding of—these fascinating organisms and their contribution to food, health and medicine. And maybe, just maybe, you will come to love mushrooms as much as I do.



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2) De la Bédoyère, G.  (2005).  The Discovery of Penicillin.  London: Evans Brothers Limited.

3) Lindequist, U., Niedermeyer, T.H.J., and Julich, W-D.  “The pharmacological potential of mushrooms.”  Evidence-Based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine 2 no.3 (2005): 285-299.

4) Sullivan, R., Smith, J.E. and Rowan, N.J.  “Medicinal mushrooms and cancer therapy.”  Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 no.2 (2006): 159-170.

5) Hibbett, D.S., et al. “A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi.”  Mycological Research 111 no.5 (2007): 509–547.

6) Wasser, S.P.  “Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides.”  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 60 (2002): 258-274.

7) Hesseltine, C.W.  “A millennium of fungi, food and fermentation.”  Mycologia 57 no.2 (1965): 149-197.

8) Dubost, N.J., Ou, B., and Beelman, R.B.  “Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity.”  Food Chemistry 105 no.2 (2007): 727-735.

9) Chen, S., Oh, S-R., Phung, S., Hur, G., Ye, J.J., Kwok, S.L., Shrode, G.E., Belury, M., Adams, L.S. and Williams, D.  “Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).”  Cancer Research 66 no.24 (2006): 12026-12034.

10) Ajith, T.A. and Janardhanan, K.K.  “Indian medicinal mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents.”  Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 40 (2007): 157-162.

11) Nicolaou, K.C., Chen, J.S., Edmonds, D.J. and Estrada, A.A.  “Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of naturally occurring antibiotics.”  Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48 no.4 (2009): 660-719.

12) Lucas, E.H., Montesano, R., Pepper, M.S., Hafner, M. and Sablon, E.  “Tumor inhibitors in Boletus edulis and other holobasidiomycetes.”  Antibiotics Chemotherapy 7 (1957): 1-4.

13) Monro, J.A.  “Treatment of cancer with mushroom products.”  Archives of Environmental Health 58 no.8 (2003): 533-537.

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15) Kidd, P.M.  “The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.”  Alternative Medicine Review 5 no. 1(2001): 4-27.

16) Daba, A.S., and Ezeronye, O.U.  “Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms.”  African Journal of Biotechnology 2 no.12 (2003): 672-687.

17) Chang, S.T. and Buswell, J.A.  “Mushroom nutraceuticals.”  World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 12 no.5 (1996): 473-476.

18) Zaidman, B-.A., Yassin, M., Mahajna, J. and Wasser, S.P.  “Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics.”  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67 no.4 (2005): 453-468.

19) NHPD (Natural Health Products Directorate).  “Licenced Natural Health Products Database.”  Health Canada.  (2009).  Accessed on:  September 25, 2010.  Available at:

20) Mattila, P.H., Piironen, V.I., Uusi-Rauva, E.J. and Koivistoinen, P.E.  “Vitamin D contents in edible mushrooms.”  Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 42 no.11 (1994): 2449-2453.